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首页 学习方法 八年级下册英语第一单元知识点

八年级下册英语第一单元知识点

栏目:学习方法 发布时间:2021-07-28 17:49:57 阅读量:86

Unit 1 What’s the matter?
一、基础知识
1. What’ s the matter? 怎么啦?出什么事情了?
【解析】matter/ ' mætə(r)) /n.问题;事情
What’ s the matter with you?= What’s the trouble with you? = What’ s wrong with you? 你怎么了?
【注】: matter 和trouble 为名词, 其前可加the 或形容词性物主代词,wrong 是adj. 不能加the
【用法】用于询问某人有什么病或某人遇到什么麻烦、问题其后跟询问对象时, 与介词with连用。即:
What’s the matter with .? = What’s your trouble? = What’s up? = What happens to .?
— What’s the matter with you ? — I have a bad cold.
2. I had a cold.我感冒了。 have a cold=catch a cold=have the flu感冒
have a fever 发烧 have a cough咳嗽 have a stomachache胃疼,肚子疼 have a toothache牙疼 have a headache头疼
3. 身体部位+ache(疼痛)构成新的复合词
stomach+ache=stomachache head+ache=headache tooth+ache=toothache back+ache=backache后背痛
4. much too+ 形容词,意为 太...... ,too much+名词,意为 很多,大量 。
5. enough【形容、副词】足够的/地,enough放在名前后,形副后。good enough足够好,enough money=much money
6. lie down躺下, lie 躺,躺着,过去式lay;lie说谎,过去式lied
7. maybe “或许”,常用于句首,表示可能性,后加句子。Maybe you are right.
may be,是情态动词+be的结构,意为“可能,也许”,后加名词、代词或形容词。He may be angry.
sound like+名词代词和从句:It sounds like you don’t know the truth.
It sounds like a good idea. sound+形容词,“听起来,好像”,The music sounds nice.
9. need 需要,实义动词need+名词,需要某物;
need to do sth.需要做某事,主语通常是人,表示人主动的动作:You need to listen carefully during class.
need doing sth.主语通常是物,表示被动的动作:Your dirty clothes need washing.
10. get off (the bus) 下(公交车) get on 上车
11. agree 同意,赞同;
agree with sth. 同意某事 如:I agree with that idea.
agree to . 同意某人的意见 如:I agree to LiLei.
12. trouble问题,麻烦 ;be in trouble遇到麻烦,make trouble 制造麻烦 ,have trouble (in) doing sth. =have difficulties (in) doing sth做......有麻烦。
13. right away=right now=at once,意为 马上 。
14. advice [不可数名词]劝告,建议,向…征求意见, give . advice on sth.就某事给某人建议; advise [动词] advise . to do sth. 建议某人做某事
advise . doing sth.
【复习】exercise 练习、锻炼
当exercise意为“练习”时,为可数名词 即可加s
当exercise意为“锻炼”时,为不可数名词 即不加s
16. hurt 及物动词,使……疼痛,……受伤,He hurt his leg while exercising.
不及物动词,……(部位)疼。 His leg hurt badly.
clean 【动词】打扫,clean the classroom打扫教室,【形容词】 干净的 ,cleaner意为 清洁工 。
18. hit (用手或器具)打;击打 The boy hit the dog with a stone.
hit . on the head/ nose/ back打某人的头、鼻子、后背,on用在所打较硬的部位;
hit . in the face/ eye/ stomach 打某人的脸、眼睛、肚子,in用在所打较软的部位。
be used to sth./ doing sth.习惯于、适应了……、做某事,强调状态;His grandpa was used to country life.
Mary is not used to getting up early in the morning.
get/ become used to sth./ doing sth. “变得习惯,逐渐适应……”强调过程、动作:
It’s difficult for one to get used to another country’s habit.
20. 【复习】free [形容词]空闲的free time;免费的the drink is for free;自由的I want to become a free bird.
free【动词】使……解脱,得到自由:He could not free his arm.
run out用完,用尽 When his water run out, he knew that he would have to do something to save his own life.
物sth. run out. 某物用尽了。
人. run out of sth. 人用尽了某物。He run out of all his money last night.
22. risk (.) to do sth. 冒险去做某事 take a risk=take risks 冒险
23. the importance of (doing) sth.(做)某事的重要性
We students should know the importance of (learning) English.
importance n. 重要(性), important adj.重要的,unimportant adj.不重要的
decision 【名词】决定;抉择; make a decision 做决定 ;
make a decision to do sth.= decide to do sth. 。
25. be in the control of …掌管,管理 The headmaster is in the control of this new school.
be out of control无法控制,无法管理 be under control被控制住,在控制之中
26. 【复习】mind意为 介意 ,mind doing sth. 介意做某事 ,
Would you mind my opening the window?
27. give up (doing) sth. 放弃(做)某事,give up (playing) computer games;
give up后可接名词、代词和动词ing形式,也可不接,如: Never give up easily.
二、重点语法
【反身代词】英语中共有八个反身代词,在使用时应注意和它所指的相应的对象在人称、性别、数上保持一致。
数 人称 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称
单数 myself yourself himself herself itself
复数 ourselves yourselves themselves
【用法】
1. 可用作宾语,指的是宾语和主语表示同一个或同一些的人或事物。
如:Maria bought herself a scarf. We must look after ourselves very well.
2. 可用作表语,指的是表语和主语表示同一个或同一些人或事物。 如: She isn’t quite herself today.
3. 可用作主语或宾语的同位语,常用来加强语气。
如:She herself will fly to London tomorrow. I met the writer himself last week.
4. 用在某些固定短语当中。

look after oneself / take care of oneself 照顾自己 teach oneself sth./ learn sth. by oneself自学
enjoy oneself 玩得高兴,过得愉快
help oneself to sth 请自用……(随便吃/喝些……).
hurt oneself摔伤自己
say to oneself自言自语
leave . by oneself把某人单独留下
buy oneself sth.给自己买……东西
introduce oneself 介绍……自己

【提醒】
1. 反身代词不能单独做主语,但可以做主语的同位语,起强调作用。 如:我自己能完成作业。
(误)Myself can finish my homework. (正) I myself can finish my homework. / I can finish my homework myself.
2. 反身代词表示“某人自己”不能表示“某人的东西”,因为它没有所有格的形式。表达“某人自己的(东西)”时,须要用one’s own.
如:我用我自己的蜡笔画画。(误)I’m drawing with myself crayons. (正) I’m drawing with my own crayons.

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